|Transcranial magnetic stimulation in animal models of neurodegeneration.|
Uzair M, Abualait T, Arshad M, Yoo WK, Mir A, Bunyan RF, Bashir S.
Neural regeneration research. 2022; 17(2): 251-265
Brain stimulation techniques offer powerful means of modulating the physiology of specific neural structures. In recent years, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation, have emerged as therapeutic tools for neurology and neuroscience. However, the possible repercussions of these techniques remain unclear, and there are few reports on the incisive recovery mechanisms through brain stimulation. Although several studies have recommended the use of non-invasive brain stimulation in clinical neuroscience, with a special emphasis on TMS, the suggested mechanisms of action have not been confirmed directly at the neural level. Insights into the neural mechanisms of non-invasive brain stimulation would unveil the strategies necessary to enhance the safety and efficacy of this progressive approach. Therefore, animal studies investigating the mechanisms of TMS-induced recovery at the neural level are crucial for the elaboration of non-invasive brain stimulation. Translational research done using animal models has several advantages and is able to investigate knowledge gaps by directly targeting neuronal levels. In this review, we have discussed the role of TMS in different animal models, the impact of animal studies on various disease states, and the findings regarding brain function of animal models after TMS in pharmacology research.