|Hyperglycemia in acute ischemic stroke: physiopathological and therapeutic complexity.|
Ferrari F, Moretti A, Villa RF.
Neural regeneration research. 2022; 17(2): 292-299
Diabetes mellitus and associated chronic hyperglycemia enhance the risk of acute ischemic stroke and lead to worsened clinical outcome and increased mortality. However, post-stroke hyperglycemia is also present in a number of non-diabetic patients after acute ischemic stroke, presumably as a stress response. The aim of this review is to summarize the main effects of hyperglycemia when associated to ischemic injury in acute stroke patients, highlighting the clinical and neurological outcomes in these conditions and after the administration of the currently approved pharmacological treatment, i.e. insulin. The disappointing results of the clinical trials on insulin (including the hypoglycemic events) demand a change of strategy based on more focused therapies. Starting from the comprehensive evaluation of the physiopathological alterations occurring in the ischemic brain during hyperglycemic conditions, the effects of various classes of glucose-lowering drugs are reviewed, such as glucose-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, in the perspective of overcoming the up-to-date limitations and of evaluating the effectiveness of new potential therapeutic strategies.