Multiple Topoisomerase I (TopoI), Topoisomerase II (TopoII) and Tyrosyl-DNA Phosphodiesterase (TDP) inhibitors in the development of anticancer drugs.
Baglini E, Salerno S, Barresi E, Robello M, Da Settimo F, Taliani S, Marini AM.
European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharm. 2021; 156(): 105594

Abstract

DNA Topoisomerases (Topos) are ubiquitous nuclear enzymes involved in regulating the topological state of DNA and, in eukaryotic organisms, Topos can be classified into two structurally and functionally different main classes: TopoI and TopoII. Both these enzymes proved to be excellent targets of clinically significant classes of anticancer drugs. Actually, TopoI or II inhibitors show considerable wide spectrum antitumor activities, an important feature to be included in many chemotherapeutic protocols. Despite their clinical efficacy, the use of inhibitors targeting only one of the two enzymes can increase the levels of the other one, favouring the onset of unwanted phenomena such as drug resistance. Therefore, targeting both TopoI and TopoII can reduce the probability of developing resistance, as well as side effects thanks to the use of lower doses, given the synergistic effect of the dual activity. Moreover, since drug resistance is also due to DNA repair systems such as tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterases I and II, inhibiting Topoisomerases concomitantly to Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase enzymes could allow more efficient and safe drugs. This review represents an update of previous works reporting about dual TopoI and TopoII inhibitors, but also an overview of the new strategy regarding the development of derivatives able to simultaneously inhibit Topo and TDP enzymes, with particular attention to structure-affinity relationship studies. The newly collected derivatives are described focusing attention on their chemical structures and their biological profiles. The final aim is to highlight the structural requirements necessary for the development of potent multiple modulators of these targets, thus providing new potential antitumor agents for the clinical usage. CI - Copyright (c) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



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