A Protocol for Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Replication Timing in Intact Root Tips.
Mickelson-Young L, Wear EE, Song J, Zynda GJ, Hanley-Bowdoin L, Thompson WF.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2022; 2382(): 29-72

Abstract

DNA replication during S phase in eukaryotes is a highly regulated process that ensures the accurate transmission of genetic material to daughter cells during cell division. Replication follows a well-defined temporal program, which has been studied extensively in humans, Drosophila, and yeast, where it is clear that the replication process is both temporally and spatially ordered. The replication timing (RT) program is increasingly considered to be a functional readout of genomic features and chromatin organization. Although there is increasing evidence that plants display important differences in their DNA replication process compared to animals, RT programs in plants have not been extensively studied. To address this deficiency, we developed an improved protocol for the genome-wide RT analysis by sequencing newly replicated DNA ("Repli-seq") and applied it to the characterization of RT in maize root tips. Our protocol uses 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) to label replicating DNA in vivo in intact roots. Our protocol also eliminates the need for synchronization and frequently associated chemical perturbations as well as the need for cell cultures, which can accumulate genetic and epigenetic differences over time. EdU can be fluorescently labeled under mild conditions and does not degrade subnuclear structure, allowing for the differentiation of labeled and unlabeled nuclei by flow sorting, effectively eliminating contamination issues that can result from sorting on DNA content alone. We also developed an analysis pipeline for analyzing and classifying regions of replication and present it in a point-and-click application called Repliscan that eliminates the need for command line programming. CI - (c) 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.



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