|Advancing Our Understanding of Brain Disorders: Research Using Postmortem Brain Tissue.|
Curtis MA, Vedam-Mai V.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2022; 2389(): 201-208
It is thought that proliferative potential of neural progenitor cells, from postmortem tissue obtained from idiopathic PD patients, present in the substantia nigra (SN) as well as other brain regions can be maintained in vitro. While they might be lacking in factors required for differentiation into mature neurons, their regenerative potential is undeniable and suggestive that progenitor cells are found endogenously in the diseased brain. Adult stem/progenitor cells exist in several regions within the PD brain and are likely a valuable source of progenitor cells for understanding disease course, as well as useful tools for generating potential cellular and pharmacologic therapies. One successful therapy for some PD patients is deep brain stimulation (DBS) and has been used for more than a decade to treat PD; however its mechanism of action remains unknown. Given the close proximity of the electrode trajectory to areas of the brain known as the "germinal niches" and the Parkinsonian brain's regenerative potential, it is possible that DBS influences neural stem cell proliferation locally, as well as distally. A study of banked brain tissue from idiopathic PD patients treated with DBS, compared to 12 control brains without CNS disease, identified a significant increase in the number of proliferating precursor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles, the third ventricle, and the tissue surrounding the DBS lead. Our studies with banked human tissues from the aforementioned regions demonstrate the importance of studying brain-banked tissue from germinal niches and DBS perielectrode tissue. We reveal in these studies the presence of proliferative potential in diseased brains as well as an increase in cellular plasticity in the brain as a consequence of DBS. CI - (c) 2022. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.