Additively manufactured biodegradable porous magnesium implants for elimination of implant-related infections: An and study.
Xie K, Wang N, Guo Y, Zhao S, Tan J, Wang L, Li G, Wu J, Yang Y, Xu W, Chen J, Jiang W, Fu P, Hao Y.
Bioactive materials. 2022; 8(): 140-152

Abstract

Magnesium (Mg) alloys that have both antibacterial and osteogenic properties are suitable candidates for orthopedic implants. However, the fabrication of ideal Mg implants suitable for bone repair remains challenging because it requires implants with interconnected pore structures and personalized geometric shapes. In this study, we fabricated a porous 3D-printed Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr (denoted as JDBM) implant with suitable mechanical properties using selective laser melting technology. The 3D-printed JDBM implant exhibited cytocompatibility in MC3T3-E1 and RAW267.4 cells and excellent osteoinductivity in vitro. Furthermore, the implant demonstrated excellent antibacterial ratios of 90.0% and 92.1% for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli, respectively. The 3D-printed JDBM implant prevented MRSA-induced implant-related infection in a rabbit model and showed good in vivo biocompatibility based on the results of histological evaluation, blood tests, and Mg(2+) deposition detection. In addition, enhanced inflammatory response and TNF-alpha secretion were observed at the bone-implant interface of the 3D-printed JDBM implants during the early implantation stage. The high Mg(2+) environment produced by the degradation of 3D-printed JDBM implants could promote M1 phenotype of macrophages (Tnf, iNOS, Ccl3, Ccl4, Ccl5, Cxcl10, and Cxcl2), and enhance the phagocytic ability of macrophages. The enhanced immunoregulatory effect generated by relatively fast Mg(2+) release and implant degradation during the early implantation stage is a potential antibacterial mechanism of Mg-based implant. Our findings indicate that 3D-printed porous JDBM implants, having both antibacterial property and osteoinductivity, hold potential for future orthopedic applications. CI - (c) 2021 The Authors.



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